Menya byinshi ku gihugu cya Eritrea; aho abaturage batazi ATM naho Sim Card ikaba ari nka zahabu!

 Inshamake   Eritrea ifatwa nka kimwe mu bihugu bikandamiza kurusha ibindi muri Afurika, aho abaturage bayo n’abandi bahatuye badahabwa ubwisanzure bw'ibanze ku mibereho, politiki n'ukwemera, dore ko ubuzima bwaho bugoye.

Menya byinshi ku gihugu cya Eritrea; aho abaturage batazi ATM naho Sim Card ikaba ari nka zahabu!

 Inshamake   Eritrea ifatwa nka kimwe mu bihugu bikandamiza kurusha ibindi muri Afurika, aho abaturage bayo n’abandi bahatuye badahabwa ubwisanzure bw'ibanze ku mibereho, politiki n'ukwemera, dore ko ubuzima bwaho bugoye.

Umusare - Amakuru mu buryo utamenyereye.

Ntabwo bitangaje kuko ari igihugu kiyobowe n'ishyaka rimwe rya Perezida Isaias Afwerki kuva cyabona ubwigenge mu 1993; aho Guverinoma yaciye amashyaka atavuga rumwe n'ubutegetsi hamwe n'itangazamakuru ryigenga, bamwe mu banenga ubutegetsi barafunzwe abandi baburirwa irengero hashize imyaka.


Buri muturage ukiri urubyiruko ategekwa gukora amahugurwa ya gisirikare, aho ibi byatumye ibihumbi amagana by'abaturage bahunga igihugu, bamwe bemera gushyira ubuzima bwabo mu kaga baca mu butayu bwa Sahara n'inyanja ya mediterane bashaka kujya i Burayi, abo bitashobokeye, hari benshi bahasize ubuzima, hari abafungiwe muri Libya, hari abari kuzanwa mu Rwanda.

Abenshi mu mpunzi zirimo kuvanwa muri Libya bazanwa mu Rwanda bakomoka muri Eritrea kubera ubuzima bugoye muri iki gihugu.


Umunyamakuru Jibat Tamirat wa BBC dukesha iyi nkuru aheruka gusura iki gihugu, nubwo yari acunzwe cyane na ba maneko ba leta, gusa avuyeyo yanditse ibyo yabonye muri iki gihugu kigenzura mu buryo bukabije ubuzima bw'abaturage.


1) Sim cards ni nka zahabu
Kompanyi ya leta yitwa EriTel niyo yonyine itanga serivisi z'itumanaho. Serivisi zayo ni mbi kandi zigenzurwa bya hafi cyane na leta.


Raporo y'umuryango witwa International Telecommunication Union ivuga ko internet muri Eritrea igera ku bantu bari hejuru gato ya 1%.


Gutunga Sim card ni nko kuba ufite zahabu, aho abaturage bagomba kwiyandikisha ku butegetsi bw'ibanze kugira ngo bayitunge, no mu gihe uyibonye, ntabwo igufasha kubona Internet kuko nta 'data' zayo zitangwa kuri telephone ngendanwa.


Abantu babona internet gusa ya WiFi nayo igenda buhoro cyane, kugira ngo ujye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga nka Facebook cyangwa Twitter abantu bakoresha virtual private network(VPN) kugira ngo bahunge igenzura rya leta.


Kubera uburyo bigoye cyane kubona Sim Card, abantu benshi bagomba gukoresha telephone rusange (public phone) bakishyura kugira ngo bahamagare.

Abanya-Eritrea bakoresha telefoni rusange kuko gutunga Sim Card ni nko gutunga zahabu.


2) Abantu bafata amafaranga imbere y'umukozi wa Banki gusa
Guverinoma yashyizeho amategeko y'umubare w'amafaranga umuntu adashobora kurenza afata kuyo yabikije muri banki, dore ko n’ubwo waba ufite kuri konti yawe za miliyoni z'ama nakfa (ifaranga rya Eritrea) ntushobora kubikuza arenze 5,000 ($330) ku kwezi.


Umuturage wo mu murwa mukuru Asmara yavuze ko kugira ngo ugure Toyota Corolla yakozwe mu 1986 bigusaba kubikuza 5,000 nakfaa mu mezi 11, dore ko ngo ari bwo ushobora guha uyigurisha 55,000 cash ukanamuha andi 55,000 ukoresheje 'bank transfer'.

Kubikuza arenze 5000nakfa ntibyemewe ku kwezi niyo waba ufite amamiliyoni kuri konti yawe, kugura imodoka bigutwara amezi 11.

Yakomeje avuga ko ubundi guverinoma ivuga ko iryo gurishwa rigomba gukorwa habayeho 'bank transfer' ariko abacuruzi baba bashaka 'cash' kuko kuyabona bigoye.


Abemererwa gufata amafaranga menshi kuri banki ni abantu bagiye gukora ubukwe kuko ari umuhango ukomeye usaba amafaranga menshi, aho iyo ubukwe bwegereje nyirabwo ajya ku buyobozi bw'ibanze bukandikira banki ye ko koko afite ubukwe bityo akaba yashobora gukura kuri konti ye arenze 5,000 nakfa.


Abatuye iki gihugu bahaye BBC ibitekerezo bitandukanye ku mpamvu leta ibuza abantu gufata amafaranga; aho bamwe bavuga ko bigamije gutoza abantu umuco wo kuzigama no kurwanya ihungabana ry'ibiciro ku masoko.

Gukora ubukwe nibyo byagufasha kubikuza arenze 5000nakfa, ariko nabwo bigusaba ko iyo ubukwe bwegereje nyirabwo ajya ku buyobozi bw'ibanze bukandikira banki ye ko koko afite ubukwe. 


Nta mashini za ATM ziba muri Eritrea.
Umwe waguze imodoka yavuze ko mu mwaka ushize ubwo umupaka wa Eritrea na Ethiopia wafungurwaga nyuma y'imyaka myinshi yagiye mu mujyi wa Mekelle mu majyaruguru ya Ethiopia maze agatangara bikomeye abonye abantu bafata amafaranga menshi ava mu cyuma.


3) Hari Televiziyo imwe rukumbi
Televiziyo ya leta, Eri-TV niyo yonyine ikorera mu gihugu; ni ubuvugizi bwa leta, gusa iyo ufite ibyuma byakira satellite ushobora kureba BBC n'izindi sheni mpuzamahanga zirimo na ERISAT y'abanyapolitiki bahunze.


Ishyirahamwe ryitwa Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) rivuga ko Eritrea aricyo gihugu kiniga itangazamakuru kurusha ibindi ku isi ndetse kiri inyuma ya Korea ya ruguru.


CPJ ivuga ko ibica ku mirongo ya satellite nka radio z'abahunze iki gihugu zitumvikana kenshi kubera internet mbi itangwa na leta, gusa Minisitiri w'itumanaho Yemane Meskel ahakana ko Eritrea ari sosiyete ifunze, aho avuga ko hejuru ya 91% by'ingo zo mu mijyi zifite ibyuma bifata satellite bityo babasha kureba sheni 650 za televiziyo zo mu mahanga.

Televiziyo ya leta, Eri-TV niyo yonyine ikorera mu gihugu aho ikora ubuvugizi bwa leta, gusa iyo ufite ibyuma byakira satellite ushobora kureba n'izindi sheni mpuzamahanga.

4) Muri iki gihugu (Eritrea) haba urwengero rumwe
Ni urwengero rwashinzwe mu 1939 n'umutaliyani Luigi Melottia, nirwo rwonyine ruri mu gihugu cyose; abaturage bavuga ko vuba aha ari bwo baheruka kwemererwa kurenza amacupa abiri y'inzoga igihe bagiye mu kabari, ari nabyo byatumaga abafata agasembuye bitwaza abatakanywa kugira ngo babashe gufata izibagera ku nyota.


Uru rwengero ruzwi cyane ku izina rya Melottia kubera uriya warushinze.

Kugira ngo ubashe kurenza amacupa abiri ya manyinya mu kabari muri Eritrea bisaba kwitwaza utagasomaho!


5) Abakiri bato benshi bifuza kuva mu gihugu
Kubona 'passport' ni nk'inzozi nk’uko umusore wo muri iki gihugu yabitangarije aba banyamakuru  ko abakiri urubyiruko bo bahabwa 'passport' gusa iyo bakoze amahugurwa ya gisirikare, dore ko urwandiko rwemeza ko wayakoze urushyira mu bisabwa iyo usaba 'passport'.


Kubona uru rwandiko rw'abajya mu mahanga ntibibemerera kugenda kuko bisaba na Visa yo gusohoka,  binagoye kuyibona kuko leta iba itinya ko ugiye atagaruka, bityo urubyiruko rwinshi rw'abanya-Eritrea bava mu gihugu cyabo bihishahisha baca amayira atagendwa ku mipaka ya Ethiopia na Sudan.


Nyuma yo kuva mu gihugu bigoye, bahangara ubutayu bwa Sahara n'inyanja ya Méditerranée bizeye kugera i Burayi, gusa ababigerageza ni benshi ugereranyije n'abagerayo, bamwe bicwa n'inzara ku rugendo, abandi bakazira inyota mu butayu, abandi barohama mu nyanja.


Umuryango w'abibumbye uvuga ko Eritrea ari igihugu cya cyenda mu bihugu bivamo abimukira benshi ku isi, habazwe 507,000 mu 2018, mu mwaka wabanje bari 486,200.


Impunzi nyinshi ziri muri Ethiopia (174,000) na Sudan (114,500), hari abandi babashije kugera mu bihugu by'i Burayi; mu Budage hari 55,500, mu Busuwisi hari 34,100 nk'uko bivugwa na ONU.


Urubyiruko rwinshi ruri kuva mu gihugu, abakuze nibo usanga baboneka cyane muri Asmara, barimo kunywa icyayi muri za cafes ngo igihe gitambuke, ni mu gihe ngo umubare w'abaturage ba Eritrea ntabwo uzwi neza kuko guverinoma itigeze ikora ibarura rusange na rimwe kuva babona ubwigenge, gusa ikigereranyo cya World Population Review kivuga ko hari abaturage miliyoni 3,5 muri iki gihugu, abagera ku 500,000 bakaba baba muri Asmara.

Urubyiruko rwo muri iki gihugu birusaba kubanza kunyura mu gisirikare kugira ngo rubashe guhabwa passport yarufasha kuzasohoka mu gihugu!


6)Nubwo ibyo byose bimeze gutyo, umurwa mukuru ni mwiza
Umunyagitugu Benito Musolini w'Ubutaliyani bwakoronije iki gihugu yifuzaga ko Asmara iba "Piccolo Roma" (Roma ntoya) muri Afurika, mu myaka ya 1930 yari afite intego yo kugarura ubwami bw'abaromani.


Asmara irimo imihanda n'inyubako nziza zigaragaza umugambi abataliyani bari bahafite icyo gihe, ari nabyo byatumye UNESCO ishyira umujyi wa Asmara ku rutonde rw'imirage y'isi kuko itanga ishusho y'iterambere ry'imijyi mu ntangiriro z'ikinyejana gishize muri Afurika; ari nabyo bituma n’ubwo iki ari igihugu cy'ingorane zikomeye mu bukungu na politiki, umurwa mukuru wacyo ni umujyi mwiza ubereye gusurwa.

Asmara ni umwe mu mijyi myiza  irimo imihanda n'inyubako nziza bituma n’ubwo Eritrea ari igihugu cy'ingorane zikomeye mu bukungu na politiki, uyu murwa mukuru wayo ni umujyi mwiza ubereye gusurwa.


 

GIRICYO UBIVUGAHO


Iyi nkuru ntiravugwaho!